This will be the basis for the vacuum cleaner bag pattern, but THIS mask can be made now, with cotton (for maximum laundering potential) to use as a stand-alone community mask, or as an N95 mask cover to help extend the life of masks for medical personnel.
The vacuum bag pattern will not be sewn.
Sewing through a vacuum bag destroys its structural integrity by introducing around 200 .5mm to .7 mm holes into fabric that’s supposed to filter down to .01 microns. A millimeter is 1000 microns, so a hole .5 mm wide permits 50,000 .01 micron particles to march through abreast. Don’t do it!
Do not waste bags learning this, because the supply chain for vacuum bags is smaller than the supply chain for medical masks and construction masks.
This also applies to any medically recommended fabric, like surgical drapes. Don’t put holes in them unnecessarily. If your hospital system is asking for sewists to make masks from drapes, follow their directions precisely.
And if you notice something is wrong, like they’re asking you to poke holes into mask fabric, speak up! Just because a doctor is an expert at medicine doesn’t make them an expert in materials science! They’re tired, they’re overworked, so be their extra eyes and safety check.Continue reading “One Piece Mask Pattern and Tutorial”→
THIS TUTORIAL CAN BE USED WITH ALL OF MY MASK PATTERNS, AND CAN BE USED WITH MOST OTHER MASK PATTERNS.
Elastic is now in short supply, and medical workers have noted that their ears cannot support masks all the time. The elastic is rubbing them raw, or the cartilage in their ears is breaking down and folding.
A cotton-Lycra jersey headband is like a wide, athletic headband for a mask — it can be worn low on the neck or above a bun/pony tail, or anywhere in between. It’s at least 2 inches wide, so it distributes the weight and tension to the entire skull instead of just on the ears. Think of it as a yoga waistband for a mask.
The problem with this is not all knit fabrics are suitable for this application. The fabric must have excellent recovery and 4 way stretch, so that the mask fits tightly to the wearer’s face. Continue reading “Jersey Headband Tutorial”→
These are all Dropbox files. They’re all open for use, and I only ask attribution if you use any of this. No commercial use, please. Give these away, don’t be a profiteer.
Print the mask images at 100% on US letter or 100%, no scaling. Just cut them out around the edges. Use a straight edge (on the straight lines) if you need it. They will cut straight with a rotary cutter.
Final child & small adult masks are posted. There is no way to make a PM2.5 fit in a smaller mask, and cutting one destroys its structural integrity. Smaller lungs don’t have as much sucking power, so using something like a vacuum bag is likely to make breathing too difficult for small people. Therefore, don’t make a pocketed lining. Just cut and sew the lining exactly like the front. With interfacing or interlining, the mask is 3 layers. And if you have a vulnerable child, stay home as much as possible.
The child and small adult masks are sized for children above about age 5.
The tutorials are long, but detailed. They’re both beginner sewing projects; the flat mask is more beginner than the curved mask.
The flat mask can be shortened on both dimensions for smaller faces. Just try to keep the proportions. The pleats will need to be smaller for a smaller mask.
If you would prefer more pleats or knife pleats, you can use this tutorial.
Let’s get the data out there: A cotton mask provides between 60-70% of the protection of a hospital, disposable mask. A single layer cotton mask catches about 50% of .2-1 micron droplets and particles, and most of 5-10 micron particles, which is significantly more than catching none because you’re barefaced.
There’s a big hole in the disposable mask supply chain right now, but case transmission will increase while we’re waiting for shipments. Thus, some protection is better than none, and protection that can be cleaned and reused is better than continuing to use masks that now themselves harbor a major quantity of germs, both viral and bacterial.
A cotton mask also slows *transmission* because the mask catches a person’s cough, so there’s less aerosolized goop being pushed into the air. Most of the aerosolized transmission of viruses between people comes when someone coughs; those droplets are usually around 5-10 microns (because the virus comes out of our throats coated in spit and crud, not by itself).
A couple layers of cotton does catch spit particles as they leave our mouths. On that side, a cotton mask is a wearable handkerchief, and that’s a good thing, because elbow coughing practice is imperfect.
And since the data is starting to show that we have a lot of asymptomatic/covert carriers in the population, making a 2-4 layer cotton mask part of everyone’s regular kit means reducing the transmission rates when we must interact.
DIY fabric masks can also be built to accommodate PM2.5 (2.5 micron particulates) inserts. These inserts are effective filters, and if they’re inside a washable, changeable fabric mask, they stay effective longer.
Ideally, yes, we’d be using disposable hospital masks and well fitted respirators. We left ideal about 4 weeks behind us.
We need to preserve the remaining stock of disposables for actual sterile conditions, while still trying to lower the rate of transmission. It’s better to send a patient home with 3 cloth masks they can wear to protect those around them than to send them with nothing.
Cloth masks are considered a last resort, and yes, we are at the Last Resort.
If you don’t want to make masks, then don’t. But don’t get complacent.
The CDC is telling hospitals to use bandanas because we’re in Crisis Capacity now. And we can do better than that.
What’s the worst case? We use up stash, get that stash onto people’s faces so the disposable masks can be preserved for times when there is no substitute. It’s stash — it’s not like we were using it for anything anyway.
⅓ yard/meter of tightly woven cotton fabric, at least 44 inches/110 cm wide or 1 fat quarter yard of quilting fabric
⅓ yard/meter of medium weight interfacing, 20 inches/50 cm wide (in US, Pellon 950F ShirTailor if available; in EU/UK, Vlieseline Fusible H250) or polypropylene tearaway stabilizer, if available. If no interfacing is available, you can just cut an extra outer layer from your cotton fabric.
20 inches/50 cm of narrow elastic, 1/8th inch/.5 cm, or ¼ inch/1 cm. 2-3 mm round elastic may also be used, or fabric tubes for ties, if needed
Pattern (TO BE ADDED — print at 100% scale, print to card stock if you have it)
Sharp scissors and/or rotary cutter and cutting surface
Iron and heat-safe surface
Thread, needle, sewing machine
Twist tie/wire tie, preferably unused, or a 3 inch/10cm piece of lightweight, non-rusting wire (optional)
Bodkin or safety pin or a knitting needle & painter’s tape
1. Wash the cotton fabrics with hot water and detergent. Do not use fabric softener. If possible, dry in a tumble dryer at highest heat setting. If a dryer is not available, iron the fabric dry on the highest setting possible. When the fabric is dry, iron it flat, then fold it in half the short way. Press this fold. Open it up, bring the ends to the newly made press line, and press the folds at either end.
2. Cut out your pattern, using paper scissors or a craft knife.
3. Place the pattern pieces on the fabric, orienting the grain arrows to be parallel with either the cut edges or the pressing lines. It is okay to cut the curved mask on the cross grain or the straight grain. Trace, cut.
4. Do not press the interfacing, but fold it so you can cut two mirroring copies of the front of the mask.
5. Align the cut interfacing on the front mask pieces, making sure the nose and chin curves match. The chin curve is more pronounced than the nose curve. If using a fusible interfacing, make sure the rough, glue side is towards the WRONG side of the outer cotton fabric. Cover this pair with a scrap of fabric or a press cloth, and press the warm iron down on the paired pieces for 30 seconds. Ensure adhesion, or press again until the interfacing is glued to the outer fabric.
6. Pair the outer pieces of the interfaced mask with the center curve aligned, and nose curve matching nose curve. Stitch with a sewing machine ⅜”/1 cm seam allowance. Press the seam open.
7. Take the middle sized lining piece and fold a ⅜”/1 cm hem on the wider, straight side, towards the wrong side of the fabric. Stitch.
8. Repeat for the smallest lining piece.
9. Lay the smallest lining piece on the work surface with the turned side down. Lay the middle sized piece on top so the hems overlap. Pin together or baste, with the pin on the *right* side of the work.
10. Lay the right side of the largest lining piece on the smaller pieces, aligning the nose and chin curves. Stitch the curved edge together, with a ⅜”/1 cm seam allowance. Press the seam open.
11. Pin the outer fabric piece to the lining piece, right sides together, matching the seam line and the nose and chin curves. Stitch the top (nose) with a ⅜”/1 cm seam allowance. Repeat for lower edge (chin).
12. Place the center of the wire tie on the upper, nose edge seam allowance. Switch your machine to a wide zigzag and sew over the twist tie, in the seam allowance.
13. Turn the mask right side out and press.
14. Return your machine to straight stitch. Top stitch the upper and lower edges, about ½ cm from the edge. Set aside.
15. Lay the casings wrong side up. Fold one short end 1 cm to the back, then the other. Compare to the open edges of the mask and adjust the folds as needed. Press.
16. Fold the casing in half the long way and press.
17. Pin the casing to mask, right side of casing to lining fabric. Stitch together with a scant 1 cm/ ⅜” seam allowance. Wrap the casing around the raw edge, finger press the raw edge under, and sew. Repeat on the other end. DON’T sew over the open ends! This is like wrapping bias tape around a raw edge, just not cut on the bias.
18. Thread 10 inches/25 cm of elastic into your bodkin, or run a safety pin through it, or tape it to the end of a knitting needle. Push the elastic through the casing, then knot the ends together, as close to the ends as you can. Turn the elastic until you bury the knot inside the casing. Repeat for the other side.
19. These are sized to take a PM2.5 insert. If you have one, now is the time to put it inside. You’ll wiggle it through the open slot on the lining; Your goal is to get it inside, as flat and straight as possible.
If you don’t have PM2.5 inserts, you can make an insert for extra filtration. This mask, as is, likely filters 60-75% of aerosolized particles, depending on fabric. An insert made of 2-3 layers of polypropylene stabilizer (used for machine embroidery) or 1-2 layers of heavy duty interfacing, such as Pellon 926 extra-firm (used in purse making) or 2-3 layers of S-13 Vlieseline Heavy Duty interlining will provide some extra filtration, though at expense of ease of breathing. The best mask is the one you will wear, so if it’s too hard to breathe, remove the insert. You can also consider cotton quilt batting, or when it becomes available, two layers of electrostatic polypropylene woven fabric. (That’s the exterior of PM2.5 inserts, and it’s in short supply right now.)
To make an insert, cut multiple copies of the Insert pattern, stack, and zig-zag the edges together. If it’s too thick to breathe comfortably, either skip the insert or make a thinner one. Mark your insert as NOT A PM2.5. That way you won’t rely on it for serious particulate or toxic filtering.
Multiple layer masks:
Some hospitals are asking for 4 layer masks. To make a 4 layer, cut 3 pairs of outer fabric pattern, and one set of lining fabric. Stitch all three pairs of outer fabric together on the curved seam. Lay the 3 outer pieces together, all edges matching, all right side up. Zigzag the edges together, using a 4 mm stitch width, and having the right side of the stitch just at the edge of the piece. Proceed as if the 3 layer piece is one piece.
Flat, pleated mask, no insert
2 8 inch x 11 inch (20 cm x 28 cm) rectangles of fabric
1 8 inch x 11 inch (20 cm x 28 cm) piece of fusible interfacing
2 3 inch by 6 inch (7.5 cm x 15 cm) rectangles of fabric
20 inches/ 50 cm of narrow elastic
Sewing machine, scissors, iron and board, bodkin, marking tool (marker, chalk, pencil)
1. Align the interfacing on the wrong side of one of the rectangles of fabric (It doesn’t matter which). Press the interfacing onto fabric, using a press cloth as needed. Ensure adhesion without melting the interfacing. If you do melt it, toss that piece of fabric and cut another one.
2. Fold both large rectangles the long way, wrong sides together, align the cut edges, and press. Fold them open.
3. Measure 1 inch /2.5 cm above the fold line and make a tick mark on both sides of the rectangle. Repeat below the fold line. Measure 2 inch and 2 inches above the ticks you just made and make another two ticks on both sides of the rectangle. Repeat below the fold. You should now have 5 tick marks on each side of the rectangle.
4. Turn one rectangle over so the right side of the fabric is up, and make a box pleat, using the 5 tick marks. Bring the line the top ticks makes to the fold line and press. Bring the line the bottom ticks make to the fold line and press. Baste the pleat in place. To baste, you need a threaded hand needle, with thread that contrasts well. Don’t put a knot in the end. Make a few big stitches through the pleats so they stay in place. Don’t knot either end of thread. (You could pin this on the right side, but there will be poking. Basting is less bloody.)
5. Repeat with the other rectangle.
6. Place the two large rectangles right sides together, matching their pleats and edges. Sew both long sides together, using a machine stitch and ⅜”/1 cm seam allowance. Press.
7. Turn this tube right side out. Pull it so the pleats lay straight and press again, paying attention to the sewn edges.
8. Top stitch the two sewn edges, about ½ cm from the edge.
9. Lay the small rectangles wrong side up against the raw ends and fold the extra down to make clean, folded edges. Fold the small rectangles in half and press. Open the center fold, but not the end folds. Stitch across all four folded ends.
10. Lay one small rectangle on one raw end of the larger one, aligning the folded edges and one raw edge. Sew through all the layers with a scant 1 cm seam allowance. Repeat for the other end.
11. Wrap the free edge of the small rectangle around the back and press under 1 cm towards the wrong side. Press, and stitch.
12. Thread 10 inches of elastic on a bodkin, or tape one end to a knitting needle or skewer, and pull the elastic through the casing you just made with the small rectangle. Knot the ends and pull the elastic until the knot is buried inside the mask. Repeat on the other side.
13. You’re done! You have a mask.
If your hospital is asking for 4 layer masks, cut 4 of the large rectangles and sew them together at the edges in pairs, right side to wrong side, and right side to wrong side. Then treat each pair of rectangles like one piece of fabric. (Also, congratulations — this is the technique called flat-lining, and if you can do it with a rectangle, you can do it with anything.)
Hospitals will probably prefer natural or white fabric, just because they will be bleaching them if they’re used inside the hospital. You can use US muslin/UK calico for all parts, if you have it. If not, the next best bet is quilting cotton or percale sheeting.
Try to avoid using synthetic fabrics other than interfacing. They’re harder to clean (think stinky gym clothes) and they’re warmer to wear. They will also melt if subjected to high temperatures, such as those produced by an autoclave or industrial laundry. Since interfacing is fully inside the mask, it will be fine.
You can use polyester thread.
You can recycle tee shirts into masks, both the curved and the flat. Make sure there are no holes in the fabric. You will be using the body and back of the tee, not the sleeves or neckline. Do your best to cut the lining running vertically (from neck to hem) and the outer layer running horizontally (side seam to side seam). Jersey stretches, and a stretchy mask is one that will sag, but jersey stretches differently vertically versus horizontally. If you’re recycling tee shirts, you probably don’t have interfacing at hand, but if you do — even if it’s super light — the interfacing will stabilize and prevent that stretch.
The first mask you make will take forever. Or at least, it will seem like it takes hours. But once you know how it goes together, they’ll take 10 minutes for the flat mask and 20 for the curved.
Mark the nose and chin curves on every piece. They are different, but they’re close enough to easily mix up. Crayola marker washes out. Frixon ink disappears with heat (and reappears with cold). Colored chalk — not dry pastel — washes out.